# Topics

## Plane Table Surveying (Setting up the Plane Table, Method Of Plane Table Survey, Accessories in PTS.)

In plane table surveying we details discuss accessories used in plane table surveying, alidade, tripod, level tube, compass, plumbing fork, setting up the plane table: centering, levelling, orientation, method of plane table survey.

## Theory of Errors (Type of Error, Law’s of Weights, Probable Error, Error In Computed Result)

In theory of errors we details discuss theory of errors, occurrence of error, type of error, gross errors or mistakes, systematic or cumulative errors, accidental or random errors, precision, accuracy, true value, true error, most probable value (M.P.V), principle of least square, residual error, law’s of weights, probable error, error in computed result.

## Setting Out Of Circular Curve (Linear Method -Offsets From Long Chord, Angular Method, Etc)

In setting out of circular curve we details discuss offsets from long chord, offset from tangent, offset from chord produced in linear method & tape & theodolite/rankine method / tangential / deflection angles, two theodolite method, tachometer method in angular method.

In curve we details discuss about curve, type of curve, basic definitions of curve, elements of circular curve, apex distance, chainage of tangent points, intermediate chord length.

## Tacheometry (Tacheometer, Stadia Rod, Theory of Tacheometer, Distance and Elevation Through Tacheometer, Etc)

In tacheometry we details discuss about tacheometry, instrument used in tacheometry, tacheometer, stadia rod, stadia system, fixed hair system, movable hair system, tangential system, subtense bar system, theory of tacheometer, distance and elevation through tacheometer when a staff is vertical & staff is perpendicular to line of sight.

## Trigonometric Levelling (Determination of Elevation of Object Of Various Situation)

In trigonometric levelling, we details discuss about trigonometric levelling, determination of elevation of object when its base are accessible & not accessible & when the two instruments are not in the same vertical plane.

## Measurement of Area and Volume (Mid Ordinate Rule, Average Offset Rule, Trapezoidal Rule, Simpson’s Rule)

In measurement of area and volume, we details discuss about mid ordinate rule, average offset rule, trapezoidal rule, simpson's rule for measurement of area & trapezoidal rule / end area method, prismoidal / simpson’s rule for measurement of volume.

## Contouring (Contour Interval, Properties & Use of Contour Lines, Ridge & Valley Line, Vertical & Overhanging Cliff).

In contour, we details discuss about use of contour, contour interval, properties of contour lines, ridge & valley line, overhanging cliff, vertical cliff. Etc.

## Levelling (Correction in Levelling, Distance of Visible Horizon, Reciprocal Leveling, ETC)

In levelling, we are details discuss about elevation & altitude, reduced level, mean sea level, bench marks(B.M), horizontal line, vertical line, level line, back sight reading, fore sight reading, intermediate sight reading, method to find reduced level, height of instrument, rise and fall method, inverted staff, correction required in levelling work, distance of visible horizon, reciprocal leveling, collimation error, angular / inclination error, sensitivity of bubble tube, the sensitivity of level tube increases with?.

## Traverse Survey (Latitude And Departure, Closing Error, Relative Precision, Bowditch’s Rule, Transit Rule)

In traverse survey, latitude and departure, checks in a closed traverse, closing error, relative precision, bowditch’s rule, transit rule are details discuss.

Compass is a survey instrument used for the measurement of horizontal angles and the bearing of a line of sight.Surveyor Compass and Prismatic Compass are discussed in detailed.

## Compass Surveying (Fore Bearing And Back Bearing, Magnetic Declination, Angle of Dip)

Bearing measured from one station to adjacent next station in the direction of traverse is called fore bearing. Back Bearing, Magnetic Declination, Angle of Dip are discussed in detailed.

In compass surveying each control point is established with the help of linear and angular measurements and this process is termed as traversing. Traverse, Meridian, Bearing are discussed in detailed.

In equipment used in chain surveying,we details discuss about surveying chain, types of chain- revenue chain, gunter’s chain, engineer’s chain, metric chain, suitability of chain, unsuitability of chain, units of measurement, tapes-cloth or linen tape, metallic tape, steel tape, invar tape, pegs, arrows, ranging rods, offset rods, plumb bob, clinometer, cross-staff, optical square, prism square, chain survey instruments, distance measuring device, instruments used for various types of measurement

In liner measurements,we details discuss about procedure in chain surveying,basic definition of chain surveying- main station, tie station, main survey line, tie line/ subsidiary line, base line, check line/ proof line, offset, chainage, well conditioned triangle.Correction in chaining,limiting length of offsets.

In fundamentals of surveying (part-2), we details analysis about plan & map, scale, representation of scale- engineer’s scale, representation fraction (rf), graphical scale. Shrinkage factor or shrinkage ratio, error due to shrinkage of map, error due to wrong measuring scale, type of scales- plane scale, diagonal scale, vernier scale (direct vernier, retrograde vernier, extended vernier, double vernier).

In fundamentals of surveying (part-1), we details analysis about surveying, classification of survey, principal of surveying, instruments used for various types of measurement.Etc

Design of Vertical Alignment Generally Highway is aligned to follow the natural topography keeping in view the drainage and other design consideration.

Set Back Distance: It is clearance distance, required from the centre line of pavement/road to the obstruction in ode to maintain the

Transition Curves: When a vehicle traveling on a straight road enters into a horizontal curve instantaneously, it will ca discomfort to the

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## Consistency Index, Liquidity Index & Toughness Index | Properties of Soil | Soil Mechanics

Consistency Index is defined as the ration of the difference of liquid limit and natural water content to the plasticity index. Toughness Index is a ratio of IP & IF.

## Traffic Engineering- Traffic Studies and Analysis- Traffic Volume Study & Traffic Speed Studies

Traffic studies or surveys are carried out to analyze the traffic characteristics. These studies help in deciding the geometric design feature and traffic control for safe and efficient traffic movements. The traffic surveys for collecting traffic data are also called traffic census. The various traffic studies generally carried out are: Traffic Volume Study, Traffic Speed Studies.

Void Ratio is defined as the ratio of the volume of voids (Vv) to the volume of solids(Vs) present in a given soil mass. It is represented as 'e'. Porosity (η): It is defined as the ratio of the volume of voids(Vv) to the volume of soil (V) present in the given soil mass. It is represented as 'η'.

## Difference Between Organic and Inorganic Soils | Properties of Soil | Soil Mechanics

Liquid limit of inorganic soil not of volcanic organic rarely has a value greater 100 %. Organic soil has a generally high value of liquid limit (liquid limit>50%) but their plastic limit is also comparatively high, hence their plastic index values are not as high as its liquid limit.

Intermediate sight distance (ISD): On a horizontal curve, the requirement of overtaking sight distance can not always be satisfied. In such cases

In curve we details discuss about curve, type of curve, basic definitions of curve, elements of circular curve, apex distance, chainage of tangent points, intermediate chord length.