Pavement is a load-bearing & load-distributing component of a road. We need to consider all types of vehicles for the geometrical design, but only vehicles with significant heavy loads are considered for pavement design. These vehicles are generally commercial vehicles. As per IRC, vehicles having a gross load greater than 3 tons are called commercial vehicles.

Unsteady flow also called 'Transient Flow', occurs in the open channel when the discharge or depth or both vary with respect to time at a given section.

In Rapidly Varied Flow (R.V.F), a sudden change of depth occurs at a particular point of a channel and the change from one depth to another takes place at a distance of very short length.

The gradually varied flow (GVF) is defined as steady non- uniform flow, where the depth of flow varies gradually from section to section along the length of channel. (A steady non-uniform flow in a prismatic channel with gradual changes in its water surface elevation is termed as gradually varied flow (GVF).

Energy depth relationship is the third chapter of the open channel flow. Detailed discussion about specific energy, critical depth, relationship between specific energy and depth of flow, section factor z, relation between discharge & depth of flow, channel transition.

A flow in an open channel is said to be uniform if its properties remain constant with respect to space. Detailed discussion about Uniform Flow.

Open channel flow refers to the flow of liquid in channel open to atmosphere or in partially filled conduit (Pipe). Example- River, Flood, Rivulets, Torrent, Sewers carrying sewage, Rode side Gutter. Detailed discuss about OCF.

In traffic control devices & regulation, we detailed discussed about traffic sign & road marking but remain topics are discussed in other post.

In traffic control devices & regulation, we detailed discussed about traffic signal but remain topics are discussed in other post.

In traffic control devices & regulation, we detailed discussed about intersection but remain topics are discussed in other post.

In Traffic Studies and Analysis, a detailed discussion about Origin and Destination Study, Accident Study & Parking Study.

In Traffic Flow Characteristics & Capacity Study, we detailed discuss about Traffic Capacity Studies, Traffic Flow Characteristics Studies.

Traffic studies or surveys are carried out to analyze the traffic characteristics. These studies help in deciding the geometric design feature and traffic control for safe and efficient traffic movements. The traffic surveys for collecting traffic data are also called traffic census. The various traffic studies generally carried out are: Traffic Volume Study, Traffic Speed Studies.

The basic objective of traffic engineering is to achieve free & rapid flow of traffic with least no of accidents. For this various studies are carried out. These studies are divided into- Traffic Characteristics, Traffic Studies and Analysis, Traffic Control Regulation.

Vertical Curve are provided at the intersections of different grades to smoothen the vertical profile. The vertical curve used in the highway are of two types: Summit Curve, Valley Curve.

A theodolite is an important instrument used for measuring horizontal and vertical angles in surveying. The system of surveying in which the angles (both horizontal & vertical) are measured with the help of a theodolite, is called Theodolite surveying.

In special instrument, we detailed discuss about hand leveling, abney level, indian pattern clinometer, ceylon ghat tracer, sextant, site square, mining dial, brunton’s compass, pantagraph, eidograph.

In this photogrammetry chapter, we detailed discuss about photogrammetry, aerial photogrammetry, vertical photograph, scale of photograph, datum scale of photograph, average scale of photograph, flying height, ground co-ordinates & length of a line from a vertical photograph, crab, drift, relief displacement, number of photograph required to cover an area, exposure interval, air base, etc.

In this triangulation chapter, we detailed discuss about classification of triangulation, triangulation layout, well condition triangle, trilateration, system of framework, objective of triangulation, ETC.

In this chapter, we detailed discuss about geographic information system, uses of gis, components of gis, global positioning system, remote sensing, type of remote sensing sensor systems.

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