Fundamentals Of Surveying
SURVEYING, Classification of survey based on the curvature of the earth surface- Plane Survey, Geodetic Survey. Classification of survey based on Place– Land Survey (Topographical Survey, Cadastral Survey, City Survey), Hydrographical Survey, Astronomical Survey. Classification of survey based on Purpose- Engineering Survey, Military Survey, Archaeological Survey, Mine Survey, Geological Survey. Classification of survey based on Instrument- Chain Survey, Compass Survey, Levelling, Plane table Surveying, Theodolite Survey, Tacheometric Survey, Photogrammetric Survey, EDM (Electronic Distance Measurement) Survey. Principal of surveying– Working From Whole To Part, Location of a Point by With Respect to Reference Point. Instruments Used for Various Types of Measurement.
Plan & Map, SCALE, Representation of Scale- Engineer’s Scale, Representation Fraction (RF), Graphical Scale. Shrinkage Factor or Shrinkage Ratio, Error Due to Shrinkage of Map, Error Due to Wrong Measuring Scale, Type of Scales- Plane Scale, Diagonal Scale, Vernier Scale (Direct Vernier, Retrograde Vernier, Extended Vernier, Double Vernier).
Bearing measured from one station to adjacent next station in the direction of traverse is called fore bearing. Back Bearing, Magnetic Declination, Angle of Dip are discussed in detailed.
In plane table surveying we details discuss accessories used in plane table surveying, alidade, tripod, level tube, compass, plumbing fork, setting up the plane table: centering, levelling, orientation, method of plane table survey.