Theory of Errors & Plane Table Surveying
Theory of Errors, Occurrence of Error- Imperfection in Instruments, Environmental Condition, Human Limitations & Carelessness, Type of Error– Gross Errors or Mistakes, Systematic or Cumulative Errors, Accidental or Random errors, Important Terminology- Precision, Accuracy, True Value, True Error, Most Probable Value (M.P.V), Principle of Least Square, Residual Error. Law’s of Weights, Probable Error– Probable Error in Single Measurements, Probable Error in Mean (MPV), Probable Error of Single Measurement of Weight, Error In Computed Result.
Plane Table Surveying, Accessories Used in Plane Table Surveying- Plane Table Board, Alidade (for orientation), Tripod (for stand), Level Tube/ Spirit Level (for leveling), Compass (for orientation), Plumbing Fork (for centering), Procedure, Setting up the Plane Table- Centering, Levelling, Orientation: Orientation with a Trough Compass, Orientation by Back-Sighting, Resection. Method Of Plane Table Survey– Radiation Method, Traversing Method, Intersection Method, Resection Method- Compass Method of Resection, Back Ray Method of Resection, Two Point Problem of Resection, Three Point Problem of Resection.
Contouring (Contour Interval, Properties & Use of Contour Lines, Ridge & Valley Line, Vertical & Overhanging Cliff).
In contour, we details discuss about use of contour, contour interval, properties of contour lines, ridge & valley line, overhanging cliff, vertical cliff. Etc.
In equipment used in chain surveying,we details discuss about surveying chain, types of chain- revenue chain, gunter’s chain, engineer’s chain, metric chain, suitability of chain, unsuitability of chain, units of measurement, tapes-cloth or linen tape, metallic tape, steel tape, invar tape, pegs, arrows, ranging rods, offset rods, plumb bob, clinometer, cross-staff, optical square, prism square, chain survey instruments, distance measuring device, instruments used for various types of measurement