Open Channel Flow

Open Channel Flow, Difference Between Open Channel Flow and Pipe Flow, Type of Force In Open Channel FlowInertia Force, Gravity Force, Viscous Force. Reynold’s Number, Froude Number.

Different Types Of Open Channel : 1. On The Basis of FormationNatural Channel, Artificial Channel. 2. On The Basis Of Change In Properties Of Channel- Prismatic Channel, Non-Prismatic Channel. 3. On The Basis Of Type Of BoundaryRigid Boundary Channel, Mobile Boundary Channel

Types of Open Channel Flow-  Steady & Unsteady Flows, Uniform and Non-Uniform Flows, Varied Flow- A. Gradually Varied Flow, B. Rapidly Varied Flow, C. Spatially Varied Flow

Types of Non-uniform flows Or Varied Flow- Gradually varied steady flow: Backing up of water in a stream due to dam, Gradually varied unsteady flow: Passage of flood wave in a river, Rapidly varied steady flow: A hydraulic jump below a spillway or a sluice gate, Rapidly varied unsteady flow: A surge moving up a canal breaking of wave on the shore, Spatially varied steady flow: Flow over side weir or flow over bottom rock, Spatially varied unsteady flow: Surface runoff due to heavy rainfall.  Different Combination Of Flow

Laminar and Turbulent flow- Laminar Flow, Turbulent Flow. Critical Flow, Subcritical Flow & Supercritical Flow, Celerity (Co), Geometric Element Of Channel Section- Depth of Flow (y), Depth of Flow Section (d), Top Width (T), Wetted/ Water Area (A), Wetted Perimeter (P), Hydraulic Radius/ Hydraulic Mean Depth of Flow (R), Hydraulic Depth. 

Velocity Distribution In Open Channel Flow, Kinetic energy correction factor (α), Momentum correction factor (β), Pressure Distribution- Case (i) Channel With Small Slope, Case (ii) Channel With Large Slope

Different Equation Used In OCF – 1. Continuity Equation –(A). Continuity Equation For Steady Flow (Uniform Flow, GVF, RVF), (B). Continuity Equation For Steady Flow (SVF), (C). Continuity Equation For Unsteady Flow (GVF, RVF). 2. Energy Equation, 3. Momentum Equation In Open Channel Flow- For Steady Flow, For Unsteady Flow, SPECIFIC FORCE.


In Rapidly Varied Flow (R.V.F), a sudden change of depth occurs at a particular point of a channel and the change from one depth to another takes place at a distance of very short length.

The gradually varied flow (GVF) is defined as steady non- uniform flow, where the depth of flow varies gradually from section to section along the length of channel. (A steady non-uniform flow in a prismatic channel with gradual changes in its water surface elevation is termed as gradually varied flow (GVF).

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