Traverse Survey, Types of Traverse- Closed Traverse, Open Traverse. Method of Traversing– Linear Measurement, Angular Measurements: Loose Needle Method, Fast Needle Method, Method of Included Angle, Method of Direct Angles, Method of Deflection Angles. Balancing the Angle of Traverse- Average Correction Method. Latitude And Departure- Latitude (L), Departure (D). Checks in a Closed Traverse- Loop Traverse, Link Traverse. Closing Error, Relative Error of Closure or Relative Precision, Method to Correct Clothing Error- Bowditch’s Rule, Transit Rule.
Measurement of Area and Volume (Mid Ordinate Rule, Average Offset Rule, Trapezoidal Rule, Simpson’s Rule)
In measurement of area and volume, we details discuss about mid ordinate rule, average offset rule, trapezoidal rule, simpson's rule for measurement of area & trapezoidal rule / end area method, prismoidal / simpson’s rule for measurement of volume.
In this chapter, we detailed discuss about geographic information system, uses of gis, components of gis, global positioning system, remote sensing, type of remote sensing sensor systems.