Pavement Design- Highway Engineering (Chapter-4)

Pavement is a load-bearing & load-distributing component of a road. We need to consider all types of vehicles for the geometrical design, but only vehicles with significant heavy loads are considered for pavement design. These vehicles are generally commercial vehicles. As per IRC, vehicles having a gross load greater than 3 tons are called commercial vehicles.

Gradually Varied Flow- Open Channel Flow (Chapter-4)

The gradually varied flow (GVF) is defined as steady non- uniform flow, where the depth of flow varies gradually from section to section along the length of channel. (A steady non-uniform flow in a prismatic channel with gradual changes in its water surface elevation is termed as gradually varied flow (GVF).

Traffic Engineering – Traffic Characteristics

The basic objective of traffic engineering is to achieve free & rapid flow of traffic with least no of accidents. For this various studies are carried out. These studies are divided into- Traffic Characteristics, Traffic Studies and Analysis, Traffic Control Regulation.

Photogrammetry (Types of Photogrammetry, Types of Photographs, Scale of Photograph, Relief Displacement, ETC)

In this photogrammetry chapter, we detailed discuss about photogrammetry, aerial photogrammetry, vertical photograph, scale of photograph, datum scale of photograph, average scale of photograph, flying height, ground co-ordinates & length of a line from a vertical photograph, crab, drift, relief displacement, number of photograph required to cover an area, exposure interval, air base, etc.

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