## [PDF] Building Materials Notes by Jaspal Sir | Civil Engineering

Building Materials Notes Pdf by Jaspal Sir, This Notes content is beneficial to civil engineers of BTech. It helps to qualify for SSC JE, GATE, IES  & Other Government Exams.

## Pavement Design- Highway Engineering (Chapter-4)

Pavement is a load-bearing & load-distributing component of a road. We need to consider all types of vehicles for the geometrical design, but only vehicles with significant heavy loads are considered for pavement design. These vehicles are generally commercial vehicles. As per IRC, vehicles having a gross load greater than 3 tons are called commercial vehicles.

## Unsteady Flow: Surge- Open Channel Flow (Chapter-6)

Unsteady flow also called ‘Transient Flow’, occurs in the open channel when the discharge or depth or both vary with respect to time at a given section.

## Rapidly Varied Flow: Hydraulic Jump- Open Channel Flow (Chapter-5)

In Rapidly Varied Flow (R.V.F), a sudden change of depth occurs at a particular point of a channel and the change from one depth to another takes place at a distance of very short length.

## Gradually Varied Flow- Open Channel Flow (Chapter-4)

The gradually varied flow (GVF) is defined as steady non- uniform flow, where the depth of flow varies gradually from section to section along the length of channel. (A steady non-uniform flow in a prismatic channel with gradual changes in its water surface elevation is termed as gradually varied flow (GVF).

## Energy Depth Relationship- Open Channel Flow (Chapter-3)

Energy depth relationship is the third chapter of the open channel flow. Detailed discussion about specific energy, critical depth, relationship between specific energy and depth of flow, section factor z, relation between discharge & depth of flow, channel transition.

## Uniform Flow- Open Channel Flow (Chapter-2)

A flow in an open channel is said to be uniform if its properties remain constant with respect to space. Detailed discussion about Uniform Flow.

## Open Channel Flow – Introduction (Chapter-1)

Open channel flow refers to the flow of liquid in channel open to atmosphere or in partially filled conduit (Pipe). Example- River, Flood, Rivulets, Torrent, Sewers carrying sewage, Rode side Gutter. Detailed discuss about OCF.

## Traffic Control Devices & Regulation – Traffic Sign & Road Marking

In traffic control devices & regulation, we detailed discussed about traffic sign & road marking but remain topics are discussed in other post.

## Traffic Control Devices & Regulation – Traffic Signal

In traffic control devices & regulation, we detailed discussed about traffic signal but remain topics are discussed in other post.

## Traffic Control Devices & Regulation – Intersection

In traffic control devices & regulation, we detailed discussed about intersection but remain topics are discussed in other post.

## Traffic Studies and Analysis- Origin and Destination Study, Accident Study, Parking Study

In Traffic Studies and Analysis, a detailed discussion about Origin and Destination Study, Accident Study & Parking Study.

## Traffic Studies and Analysis → Traffic Flow Characteristics & Capacity Study

In Traffic Flow Characteristics & Capacity Study, we detailed discuss about Traffic Capacity Studies, Traffic Flow Characteristics Studies.

## Traffic Engineering- Traffic Studies and Analysis- Traffic Volume Study & Traffic Speed Studies

Traffic studies or surveys are carried out to analyze the traffic characteristics. These studies help in deciding the geometric design feature and traffic control for safe and efficient traffic movements. The traffic surveys for collecting traffic data are also called traffic census. The various traffic studies generally carried out are: Traffic Volume Study, Traffic Speed Studies.

## Traffic Engineering – Highway Engineering (Chapter-3)

The basic objective of traffic engineering is to achieve free & rapid flow of traffic with least no of accidents. For this various studies are carried out. These studies are divided into- Traffic Characteristics, Traffic Studies and Analysis, Traffic Control Regulation.

## Vertical Curve (Summit Curve, Length Of Summit Curve, Valley Curve, Length Of Valley Curve)

Vertical Curve are provided at the intersections of different grades to smoothen the vertical profile. The vertical curve used in the highway are of two types: Summit Curve, Valley Curve.

## Theodolite Survey (Classification of Theodolite, Components of a Vernier Theodolite, Temporary & Permanent Adjustment)

A theodolite is an important instrument used for measuring horizontal and vertical angles in surveying. The system of surveying in which the angles (both horizontal & vertical) are measured with the help of a theodolite, is called Theodolite surveying.

## Special Instrument (Hand Leveling, Abney Level, Indian Pattern Clinometer, ETC )

In special instrument, we detailed discuss about hand leveling, abney level, indian pattern clinometer, ceylon ghat tracer, sextant, site square, mining dial, brunton’s compass, pantagraph, eidograph.

## Photogrammetry (Types of Photogrammetry, Types of Photographs, Scale of Photograph, Relief Displacement, ETC)

In this photogrammetry chapter, we detailed discuss about photogrammetry, aerial photogrammetry, vertical photograph, scale of photograph, datum scale of photograph, average scale of photograph, flying height, ground co-ordinates & length of a line from a vertical photograph, crab, drift, relief displacement, number of photograph required to cover an area, exposure interval, air base, etc.

## Triangulation (Classification of Triangulation,Triangulation Layout, Well Condition Triangle, Trilateration)

In this triangulation chapter, we detailed discuss about classification of triangulation, triangulation layout, well condition triangle, trilateration, system of framework, objective of triangulation, ETC.

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