# Soil Mechanics

## Soil Formation & Properties of Soils

**Formation of Soil: **Process of soil formation, Physical & Chemical Process of Weathering, Residual soil and Transportation soil, Mode of transportation effect on characteristic of soil, General cycle involved in formation of soil. **Types of Soil: **Alluvial soil, Lacustrine soil, Marine soil, Aeoline soil, Glacial soil, Colluvial soil, Loess soil, Marl soil, Tuff soil, Bentonite soil, Black cotton soil, Lateine soil, Muck soil, Peat soil, Cumulose soil, Loam soil, Gumbo soil. **Phase Diagram of Soil: **Three Phase system of Soil, Two Phase system of Soil. **Water Content or Moisture Content: **Water Content or Moisture Content, Relation in between: w, Ws, & W, Water content in terms of total weight of soil (w’), Relation in between w & w’. **Determined or Test of Water Content: **How To Determined or Test of Water Content, OVEN DRYING METHOD, SAND BATH METHOD, ALCOHOL METHOD, PYCNOMETER METHOD, CALCIUM CARBIDE OR MOISTURE METER METHOD, RADIATION METHOD, TORSIONAL BALANCE METHOD. **Soil water & Types of Soil Water: **Soil Water & Types of Soil Water, Ground / Free / Gravity water, Capillary water, Structural water, Adsorbed water, Hygroscopic water, Film water. **Void Ratio & Porosity: **Void Ratio of Soil, Porosity of Soil. **Degree of Saturation, Air Content & Percentage Air Voids: **Degree of Saturation, Type of soil according to degree of saturation, Air Content, Percentage Air Voids. **Unit Weight / Density: **Unit Weight / Density, Bulk Unit Weight (γ)/ Bulk Density(ρ), Dry Unit Weight (γd)/ Dry Density(ρd), Saturated Unit Weight (γsat)/ Saturated Density(ρsat), Submerged Unit Weight (γsub), Unit Weight of Solid (γs)/ Density of Solid(ρs). **Specific Gravity : **Specific Gravity, True/Absolute Specific Gravity, Mass/Bulk/Apparent Specific Gravity, Specific Gravity of Different Soil. **Density Index: **Density Index or Relative Density or Degree of Density, Degree of Denseness According to Degree of Density. **Relative Compaction: **Relative Compaction (Rc), Calculate the value of (e)max, (e)min, (η)max, (η)min, Packing of Uniform Sphere, Loosest State, Densest State. **Interrelationship Between the Properties of Soil: **Interrelationship Between Voids ratio (e), Water Content (w), Specific Gravity (G), Degree of Saturation(s), Interrelationship Between Voids ratio (e), Unit Weight (γ), Specific Gravity (G), Degree of Saturation(s), Unit Weight of Water(\(γ_w\)), Interrelationship Between Voids ratio (e),Dry Unit Weight (\(γ_{dry}\)), Specific Gravity (G), Unit Weight of Water(\(γ_w\)), Interrelationship Between Voids ratio (e), Saturated Unit Weight (\(γ_{sat}\)), Specific Gravity (G),Unit Weight of Water(\(γ_w\)), Interrelationship Between Voids ratio (e), Submerged Unit Weight γ’, Specific Gravity (G),Unit Weight of Water (\(γ_w\)), Interrelationship Between Submerged Unit Weight γ’, Porosity(η), Dry Unit Weight (\(γ_{dry}\)), Unit Weight of Water(\(γ_w\)), Interrelationship Between Dry Unit Weight (\(γ_{dry}\)), Water Content (w), Unit Weight(γ), Interrelationship Between Dry Unit Weight (\(γ_{dry}\)), Specific Gravity (G), Unit Weight of Water(\(γ_w\)), Water Content(w), Percentage Air Voids (ηa). **Test of Specific Gravity: **By Flask or Pycnometer. **Test of Unit Weight of Soil: **Unit weight, Water Displacement Method, Submerged Mass Density Method, Core Cutter Method, Sand Replacement Method. **Particle Size Distribution Analysis: **Particle Size Distribution Analysis, Sieve Analysis, Coarse Sieve / Gravel Sieving, Fine Sieve / Sand Sieving, Sedimentation Analysis, Stoke’s law. **Particle Size Distribution Curve: **Particle Size Distribution Curve, Coefficient of Uniformly (Cu), Coefficient of Curvature (Cc). **Consistency of Soil: **Consistency of Soil (How easily can deform soil). Atterberg stages of consistency. **Liquid Limits – Consistency Atterberg Limits: **Liquid Limits(WL),Test To Find Liquid Limit,One Point Method, Is Code Method, Static Cone Penetration Test. **Plastic Limits-Consistency Atterberg Limits: **Plastic Limits, Plastic Limit Determination. **Shrinkage Limits-Consistency Atterberg Limits: **Shrinkage Limits(Ws), Determination of Shrinkage Limit. **Shrinkage Index, Shrinkage Ratio, Volumetric shrinkage, Linear Shrinkage, Plasticity Index: **Shrinkage Index (Is), Shrinkage Ratio (R or SR), Volumetric shrinkage (Vs), Linear Shrinkage (Ls), Plasticity Index (Ip). **Consistency Index, Liquidity Index & Toughness Index: **Consistency Index (Ic) /Relative consistency, Liquidity Index (IL) /Water Plasticity Ratio, Toughness Index (IT).**Sensitivity, Thixotrophy & Activity: **SENSITIVITY, THIXOTROPHY, ACTIVITY. **Collapsibility & ****Difference between ORGANIC & INORGANIC Soils.**

## Topics

Unit Weight is the ratio of weight to volume. It is also known as the specific weight. And Density is the ratio of Mass to volume.

The various techniques for determining the water content of soil are as follows: Oven Drying Method, Sand Bath Method, Alcohol Method, Pycnometer Method, Calcium Carbide or Moisture Meter Method, Radiation Method, and Torsional Balance Method.