##### Curve & Setting Out Of Circular Curve

**Curve, **Horizontal curves are generally of three types, Simple Circular Curve, Compound Curve, Reverse Curve, Broken-back Curve, **Basic Definitions- **Back tangent, Forward tangent, Vertex or point of intersection, Deflection angle, Point of Curvature (P.C.), Point of tangency(P.T.), Tangent distance (T), External distance (E), Long chord (L), Mid ordinate (M), Length of curve (l), **Elements of Circular Curve-** Length of Tangent (T), Length of Curve (l), Mid Ordinate (M), Length of Chord (L), External Distance (E) Apex Distance, Chainage of Tangent points, **Intermediate Chord Length- **For 1st chord, For 2nd to (n-1) chord, For Last chord, No of Intermediate Chord

## Topics

## Measurement of Area and Volume (Mid Ordinate Rule, Average Offset Rule, Trapezoidal Rule, Simpson’s Rule)

In measurement of area and volume, we details discuss about mid ordinate rule, average offset rule, trapezoidal rule, simpson's rule for measurement of area & trapezoidal rule / end area method, prismoidal / simpson’s rule for measurement of volume.

In fundamentals of surveying (part-2), we details analysis about plan & map, scale, representation of scale- engineer’s scale, representation fraction (rf), graphical scale. Shrinkage factor or shrinkage ratio, error due to shrinkage of map, error due to wrong measuring scale, type of scales- plane scale, diagonal scale, vernier scale (direct vernier, retrograde vernier, extended vernier, double vernier).