Curve & Setting Out Of Circular Curve


In measurement of area and volume, we details discuss about mid ordinate rule, average offset rule, trapezoidal rule, simpson's rule for measurement of area & trapezoidal rule / end area method, prismoidal / simpson’s rule for measurement of volume.

In fundamentals of surveying (part-2), we details analysis about plan & map, scale, representation of scale- engineer’s scale, representation fraction (rf), graphical scale. Shrinkage factor or shrinkage ratio, error due to shrinkage of map, error due to wrong measuring scale, type of scales- plane scale, diagonal scale, vernier scale (direct vernier, retrograde vernier, extended vernier, double vernier).

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