##### Contouring & Measurement of Area and Volume

**Introduction, Measurement of Area: ****Computation of Area of Geometrical Figures-** Rectangle, Square, Triangle, Circle, Parallelogram, Trapezoid, Trapezium, Oblique Triangle, Area of a Segment, Regular Polygon. **Computation of Area of Irregular Shape**– Mid Ordinate Rule, Average Offset Rule, Trapezoidal Rule, Simpson’s One Third Rule. ** **** Measurement Of Volume ** :** Computation of Volume of Irregular Shape**– Trapezoidal Rule / End Area Method, Prismoidal / Simpson’s Rule

## Topics

Compass is a survey instrument used for the measurement of horizontal angles and the bearing of a line of sight.Surveyor Compass and Prismatic Compass are discussed in detailed.

## Theory of Errors (Type of Error, Law’s of Weights, Probable Error, Error In Computed Result)

In theory of errors we details discuss theory of errors, occurrence of error, type of error, gross errors or mistakes, systematic or cumulative errors, accidental or random errors, precision, accuracy, true value, true error, most probable value (M.P.V), principle of least square, residual error, law’s of weights, probable error, error in computed result.