Civil Engineering

Civil engineering is the branch of engineering that focuses on the design, construction, and maintenance of various infrastructure projects such as dams, bridges, aqueducts, canals, highways, power plants, sewerage systems, and more. Civil engineers play a crucial role in ensuring that these infrastructures meet safety standards, are sustainable, and effectively serve the needs of society.

Some key areas within civil engineering include:

  1. Structural Engineering
  2. Transportation Engineering
  3. Geotechnical Engineering
  4. Environmental Engineering
  5. Water Resources Engineering
  6. Geomatics Engineering

Structural Engineering

Structural engineers are responsible for designing and analyzing the structural components of buildings, bridges, towers, and other structures to ensure they can handle various loads, such as gravity, wind, and earthquakes. In structural engineering, various subjects are studied, including:
  1. Engineering Mechanics
  2. Building Materials
  3. Solid Mechanics
  4. Structural Analysis
  5. Concrete Structures
  6. Steel Structures
  7. Construction Technology & Management

Transportation Engineering

Transportation engineers focus on the planning, design, construction, and maintenance of transportation systems, including roads, highways, railways, airports, and ports. In transportation engineering, various subjects are studied, including:

  1. Highway
  2. Railways
  3. Airports

Geotechnical Engineering

Geotechnical engineering is the study of soil and rock behavior to assess their suitability for construction projects and reduce risks associated with foundation stability, slope stability, and groundwater flow. Though several subjects are studied in geotechnical engineering, we focus on two main subjects:

  1. Soil Mechanics
  2. Foundation Engineering

Environmental Engineering

  1. Water Supply Engineering
  2. Waste Water Engineering
  3. Solid Waste Management
  4. Air Pollution And Noise pollution

Water Resources Engineering

  1. Fluid Mechanics
  2. Open Channel Flow
  3. Hydraulics & Hydraulic Machines
  4. Hydrology
  5. Irrigation

Geomatics Engineering

  1. Surveying
  2. Geology
  3. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing

Important Notice: When we created this site, we thought that we will provide all the subjects of civil engineering by writing articles, but while doing this work, I had to face many difficulties, one of which was financial problem and second, it was very difficult to do this work. It was time consuming so we left this work midway but now we have decided that the amount of work that has been done is good enough and apart from this we will provide the notes of all the subjects in PDF format.

List of subjects we have completed is as follows:

  1. Open Channel Flow – Click Here 
  2. Surveying – Click Here 
  3. Highway Engineering – Click Here  
  4. Soil Mechanics – Click Here 

Only two subjects have been completed completely: Open Channel Flow and Surveying. “Highway Engineering has five chapters. We have completed four chapters.” Only one chapter of the “Soil Mechanics” is completed. For more information click the subject name.

Pavement is a load-bearing & load-distributing component of a road. We need to consider all types of vehicles for the geometrical design, but only vehicles with significant heavy loads are considered for pavement design. These vehicles are generally commercial vehicles. As per IRC, vehicles having a gross load greater than 3 tons are called commercial vehicles.

Unsteady flow also called 'Transient Flow', occurs in the open channel when the discharge or depth or both vary with respect to time at a given section.

In Rapidly Varied Flow (R.V.F), a sudden change of depth occurs at a particular point of a channel and the change from one depth to another takes place at a distance of very short length.

The gradually varied flow (GVF) is defined as steady non- uniform flow, where the depth of flow varies gradually from section to section along the length of channel. (A steady non-uniform flow in a prismatic channel with gradual changes in its water surface elevation is termed as gradually varied flow (GVF).

Energy depth relationship is the third chapter of the open channel flow. Detailed discussion about specific energy, critical depth, relationship between specific energy and depth of flow, section factor z, relation between discharge & depth of flow, channel transition.

A flow in an open channel is said to be uniform if its properties remain constant with respect to space. Detailed discussion about Uniform Flow.

Open channel flow refers to the flow of liquid in channel open to atmosphere or in partially filled conduit (Pipe). Example- River, Flood, Rivulets, Torrent, Sewers carrying sewage, Rode side Gutter. Detailed discuss about OCF.

The basic objective of traffic engineering is to achieve free & rapid flow of traffic with least no of accidents. For this various studies are carried out. These studies are divided into- Traffic Characteristics, Traffic Studies and Analysis, Traffic Control Regulation.

A theodolite is an important instrument used for measuring horizontal and vertical angles in surveying. The system of surveying in which the angles (both horizontal & vertical) are measured with the help of a theodolite, is called Theodolite surveying.

In special instrument, we detailed discuss about hand leveling, abney level, indian pattern clinometer, ceylon ghat tracer, sextant, site square, mining dial, brunton’s compass, pantagraph, eidograph.

In this photogrammetry chapter, we detailed discuss about photogrammetry, aerial photogrammetry, vertical photograph, scale of photograph, datum scale of photograph, average scale of photograph, flying height, ground co-ordinates & length of a line from a vertical photograph, crab, drift, relief displacement, number of photograph required to cover an area, exposure interval, air base, etc.

In this triangulation chapter, we detailed discuss about classification of triangulation, triangulation layout, well condition triangle, trilateration, system of framework, objective of triangulation, ETC.

In this chapter, we detailed discuss about geographic information system, uses of gis, components of gis, global positioning system, remote sensing, type of remote sensing sensor systems.

In plane table surveying we details discuss accessories used in plane table surveying, alidade, tripod, level tube, compass, plumbing fork, setting up the plane table: centering, levelling, orientation, method of plane table survey.

In theory of errors we details discuss theory of errors, occurrence of error, type of error, gross errors or mistakes, systematic or cumulative errors, accidental or random errors, precision, accuracy, true value, true error, most probable value (M.P.V), principle of least square, residual error, law’s of weights, probable error, error in computed result.

In setting out of circular curve we details discuss offsets from long chord, offset from tangent, offset from chord produced in linear method & tape & theodolite/rankine method / tangential / deflection angles, two theodolite method, tachometer method in angular method.

In curve we details discuss about curve, type of curve, basic definitions of curve, elements of circular curve, apex distance, chainage of tangent points, intermediate chord length.

In tacheometry we details discuss about tacheometry, instrument used in tacheometry, tacheometer, stadia rod, stadia system, fixed hair system, movable hair system, tangential system, subtense bar system, theory of tacheometer, distance and elevation through tacheometer when a staff is vertical & staff is perpendicular to line of sight.

In trigonometric levelling, we details discuss about trigonometric levelling, determination of elevation of object when its base are accessible & not accessible & when the two instruments are not in the same vertical plane.

In measurement of area and volume, we details discuss about mid ordinate rule, average offset rule, trapezoidal rule, simpson's rule for measurement of area & trapezoidal rule / end area method, prismoidal / simpson’s rule for measurement of volume.

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