Special Instrument (Hand Leveling, Abney Level, Indian Pattern Clinometer, ETC )

Hand Leveling

  • A hand level is a little levelling tool that is held in one’s hand during levelling.
  • It is used for approximately determination of elevation using preliminary surveying.

Abney Level

  • An Abney level is an improved version of the hand level.
  • It is used for leveling and measurement of slope also.

Indian Pattern Clinometer

  • The Indian Pattern Clinometer, also called the tangent clinometer, is a simple instrument used for determining the difference of elevations of the two points by measuring the inclination of the line of sight. It is specially useful for plane tabling.

Ceylon Ghat Tracer

  • The Ceylon ghat tracer is a simple instrument used for measuring the slopes along hilly area.


  • A sextant is an instrument used for measurement of the horizontal and vertical angles.
  • Sextant are two types.
    1. Nautical sextant
    2. Box sextant

Site Square

  • The site square is an instrument used to set out two lines at right angles to each other.

Mining Dial

  • It is simple form of theodolite used for mine surveying.

Brunton’s Compass

  • It is special instrument which acts as both compass and a clinometer.


  • A pantagraph is not a surveying instrument. This is an instrument used in the office to enlarge or to reduce a plan already drawn.


  • An eidograph is an improved version of the ordinary pantagraph. It is used for the same purpose as a pantagraph.


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