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Civil Engineering

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ESE NOTES is a website dedicated to education. We hope that the information on this website will be useful to students and those preparing for competitive exams.

This educational website also aims to inform visitors who want to learn more about various subject areas. Finally, we hope that this website will aid readers in gaining a better understanding of the various topics.

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A flow in an open channel is said to be uniform if its properties remain constant with respect to space. Detailed discussion about Uniform Flow.

Open channel flow refers to the flow of liquid in channel open to atmosphere or in partially filled conduit (Pipe). Example- River, Flood, Rivulets, Torrent, Sewers carrying sewage, Rode side Gutter. Detailed discuss about OCF.

In traffic control devices & regulation, we detailed discussed about traffic sign & road marking but remain topics are discussed in other post.

In traffic control devices & regulation, we detailed discussed about traffic signal but remain topics are discussed in other post.

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In levelling, we are details discuss about elevation & altitude, reduced level, mean sea level, bench marks(B.M), horizontal line, vertical line, level line, back sight reading, fore sight reading, intermediate sight reading, method to find reduced level, height of instrument, rise and fall method, inverted staff, correction required in levelling work, distance of visible horizon, reciprocal leveling, collimation error, angular / inclination error, sensitivity of bubble tube, the sensitivity of level tube increases with?.

In contour, we details discuss about use of contour, contour interval, properties of contour lines, ridge & valley line, overhanging cliff, vertical cliff. Etc.

In measurement of area and volume, we details discuss about mid ordinate rule, average offset rule, trapezoidal rule, simpson's rule for measurement of area & trapezoidal rule / end area method, prismoidal / simpson’s rule for measurement of volume.

In trigonometric levelling, we details discuss about trigonometric levelling, determination of elevation of object when its base are accessible & not accessible & when the two instruments are not in the same vertical plane.

Highway Engineering

Vertical Curve are provided at the intersections of different grades to smoothen the vertical profile. The vertical curve used in the highway are of two types: Summit Curve, Valley Curve.

Design of Vertical Alignment Generally Highway is aligned to follow the natural topography keeping in view the drainage and other design consideration.   The vertical

Set Back Distance: It is clearance distance, required from the centre line of pavement/road to the obstruction in ode to maintain the adequate sight distance

Transition Curves: When a vehicle traveling on a straight road enters into a horizontal curve instantaneously, it will ca discomfort to the driver. To avoid

Soil Mechanics

Consistency of Soil is the relative ease with which soil can be deformed. It is used generally for fined-grained soil-related large water content.

The result of the particle size distribution analysis is reported in the form of a curve termed as particle size distribution curve. in which % finer is expressed on Y- axis &size of particle is expressed on X- axis on log scale. This curve helps in analysis the type of soil & gradation of soil.

Particle size distribution analysis or mechanical analysis is carried out in two systems: Sieve Analysis, Sedimentation Analysis. In Coarse Grained Soil : we study Gravel & Sand and In Fine Grained Soil: we study Silt & Clay.

Test of unit weight of soil can be determined using the following methods: Water Displacement Method, Submerged Mass Density Method, Core Cutter Method, Sand Replacement Method.

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