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ESE NOTES is a website dedicated to education. We hope that the information on this website will be useful to students and those preparing for competitive exams.

This educational website also aims to inform visitors who want to learn more about various subject areas. Finally, we hope that this website will aid readers in gaining a better understanding of the various topics.

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In this photogrammetry chapter, we detailed discuss about photogrammetry, aerial photogrammetry, vertical photograph, scale of photograph, datum scale of photograph, average scale of photograph, flying height, ground co-ordinates & length of a line from a vertical photograph, crab, drift, relief displacement, number of photograph required to cover an area, exposure interval, air base, etc.

In this triangulation chapter, we detailed discuss about classification of triangulation, triangulation layout, well condition triangle, trilateration, system of framework, objective of triangulation, ETC.

In this chapter, we detailed discuss about geographic information system, uses of gis, components of gis, global positioning system, remote sensing, type of remote sensing sensor systems.

In plane table surveying we details discuss accessories used in plane table surveying, alidade, tripod, level tube, compass, plumbing fork, setting up the plane table: centering, levelling, orientation, method of plane table survey.

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In special instrument, we detailed discuss about hand leveling, abney level, indian pattern clinometer, ceylon ghat tracer, sextant, site square, mining dial, brunton’s compass, pantagraph, eidograph.

A theodolite is an important instrument used for measuring horizontal and vertical angles in surveying. The system of surveying in which the angles (both horizontal & vertical) are measured with the help of a theodolite, is called Theodolite surveying.

Highway Engineering

Intermediate sight distance (ISD): On a horizontal curve, the requirement of overtaking sight distance can not always be satisfied. In such cases overtaking is prohibited

Overtaking Sight Distance (OSD): If all the vehicle ply on the road at the design is speed, then theoretically there would be no need for

Stopping Sight Distance (SSD): The minimum distance visible to a driver ahead to safety stop a vehicle travelling at design speed without collision with any

Sight Distance: Sight distance is the length of road visual a head to the driver at any distance. ( it is considered by taking the

Soil Mechanics

Water present in the soil in any form is termed soil water. Many types of sοil water: Ground (Free, Gravity) water, Capillary water, Structural water, and Adsorbed water.

The various techniques for determining the water content of soil are as follows: Oven Drying Method, Sand Bath Method, Alcohol Method, Pycnometer Method, Calcium Carbide or Moisture Meter Method, Radiation Method, and Torsional Balance Method.

Water content (w):It is define as the weight of water to the weight of solids present in the given soil mass. Moisture content (m): It is define as the mass of water to the mass of solids present in the given soil mass. The  result of water content & moisture content are same .

Soil is a three-phase system that consists of solid, liquid & gaseous matter, that do not occupy separate spaces, but are blended with each other in a definite proportion, which in turn governs the properties 0f soil.

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