Types of Soil | Properties of Soil | Soil Mechanics

  Type of Soil  

There are many types of soil. Examples – Alluvial soil, Lacustrine soil, Marine soil, Aeolian soil, Glacial soil, Colluvial soil, Loess soil, Marl soil & others.

Alluvial soil

It is the soil that is deposited from suspension in running water, weathering is physically, found along the banks of rivers. It is transported by soil and transported by water.

Lacustrine soil

It is the soil which is deposited from suspension in fresh, still water of the lake. It is transported sοil.

Marine soil

It is the soil which is deposited from seawater.

Aeolian soil

It is the soil that is transported by blowing wind. it is also called Sand Dunes soil. 

Glacial soil

It is the soil that is transported by ice.

Colluvial soil

It is formed due to transported soil. It is also called Talus soil.

Type of Soil
Type of Soil

Loess soil

It is uniformly graded wind blows silt, slightly cemented by calcium compound or Montmorillonite: It is also termed as Collapseable soil.

Marl soil

It is fine-grained calcium carbonate soil of marine origin that is formed due to the decomposition of plants and bones of animals.

Tuff soil

It is fine-grained slightly cemented volcanic ash transported by wind or water.

Bentonite soil

It is chemically weathered volcanic ash. It consists of a high degree of montmorillonite. It is highly plastic, highly shrinkage & swelling, and has low shear strength. It is used as a lubricant.

Black cotton soil

It is residual soil formed from basalt & has an excess of montmorillonite. It is dark in color & is suitable for growing cotton.

Laterine soil

It is the type of soil formed due to leaching (washing out of silicious compounds & deposition of Fe2o3 & Al2o3). It is found in hilly areas.


It is a mixture of fine particles in inorganic soil & black decomposed organic matter. It is found in marshy/swampy/after the overflow of the river.

Peat soil

It is highly organic soil that almost entirely consists of black decomposed vegetative matter in different stages. It is highly fibrous and compressible.

Cumulose soil

Muck soil +Peat soil = Cumulose soil.

Loam soil

It is a mixture of clay, sand, and silt.

Gumbo soil

It is back, sticky highly plastic soil.

SubjectSoil Mechanics
UnitSoil Formation & Properties of Soil
TopicTypes of Soil
Next TopicPhase Diagram of Soil
Previous TopicFormation of Soil


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