Engineering Surveys For Highway Alignment & Maximum Saturation System / Utility Factor System 1.5

Engineering Surveys For Highway Alignment:

In order to decide the or finalized the Probable Alignment following Surveys are being carried out:

  1. Map Study.
  2. Reconnaissance.
  3. Preliminary Survey.
  4. Detailed or Final survey.

MAP Study

In map study various alignment are drown on map Passing through minimum no of obstructions. and may utilization area.


It is done by visiting the location under consideration to identify the features which are not available on map of which are changed over the Period of the time. Feasibility is also checked for all the Possible alignment. in this stage.

Preliminary Survey

In this Survey chain, compass, leveling work, Soil investigation, drainage Provision, traffic Studies are carried out and road alignment is finalized.

Detailed Survey

In this planning designing martial estimation and cost estimation etc are done and a detailed project report (DPR) is  prepared.

Maximum Saturation System / Utility Factor System

This system is used to choose the best alignment among various option available.

It depends upon “Population and Production“.

Rules to Decide The factor

  • Provide utility factor of 0.5 to the lowest population range and increased it by multiplying with ‘2’ for nest range of population. Ex-0.5,1,2,4,8,and so on….
  • Provide utility factor 1 for agriculture.
  • Provide utility factor to the industrial production as per the weightage.


There are 4 alternate proposal of a road plan for backward district. The details are given as follows justify with reason which proposal is the best .Assuming utility units of 0.5,1,2,4,8…. for the 5 population range and 1 and 5 per thousand tonnes agricultural and industrial products served.

Utility Factor System
Utility Factor System

Total Utility Value Per Unit Length:

For P= \(\frac{100×0.5+150×1+40×2+20×4+3×8+150×1+20×5}{500}\)=1.268.

For Q= \(\frac{200×0.5+250×1+68×2+28×4+3×8+220×1+25×5}{600}\)=1.611.

For R= \(\frac{270×0.5+350×1+82×2+36×4+4×8+300×1+35×5}{700}\)=1.857.

For S= \(\frac{280×0.5+410×1+91×2+41×4+4×8+400×1+42×5}{800}\)=1.922.


The preference of proposal is S>R>Q>P.

Introduction & Highway Development and Planning

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